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In keeping with my work on the ‘Vicarious Humanity of Christ,’ in particular within Reformed theology—but also reaching back into PaleoChristianity—J. Todd Billings provides a great synopsis and call for word of caution relative to how Reformed theology has been so often caricatured. How many times have you said, or how many times have you heard others say that Calvinism presents us with a view of humanity that is hard, rigid, deterministic; and really with a view wherein there remains no longer a place for real humanity to be real humanity? Usually the premise behind this musing is that the definitive piece that defines what real humanity is, is the component of ‘free-will’. The conjecture is that if someone doesn’t have Libertarian deliberative individualistic free-will; then this demands that any such view (that articulates anything less) provides us with a sub-human view of humanity in general. This is the kind of stuff that J. Todd Billings seeks to correct (in the section that he is working through in his book) in the following quote:

Contrary to the frequent caricatures of Reformed theology in which God is seen as diametrically opposed to humanity, Calvin and the mainstream Reformed tradition follow this Augustinian line of thought in claiming that true humanity is humanity in communion with God. Therefore, as a consequence of the example from Augustine, emphasizing divine agency does not mean diminishing or demeaning the human. Saying that redemption is 100 percent empowered by God does not mean that humanity is belittled to nothingness. No. Instead, full deity and full humanity belong together in communion. Thus an action performed “by the Spirit” is an activation of our human faculties, not a diminishment of them. [J. Todd Billings, Union With Christ: Reframing Theology and Ministry for the Church, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 2011), 43]

Do you still think that the Reformed tradition belittles humanity? In what sense? The obvious premise that the above flows from is one that the Scotist thesis (which Calvin was, ‘Scotist’) has articulated; viz. that the ‘purpose’ of creation, and humanity has always been to be in union and thus communion with God. And the purpose of the Father’s love has always already been for his Son and consummated by the Spirit. We participate and find our bearing for who we were created to be, in and only through the recreated humanity of the Son. If we are going to be truly human, then we must be inside the purposes of God for his creation. If the purposes of God for creation are only realized in the Son’s humanity for us; then we must be participants in the Son’s humanity if we are truly going to operate at a maximal human level. This seems to be an implication and exposition of what Billings is getting at in his opening statement (of which he will be developing as I read on) above.



Hello my name is Bobby Grow, and I author this blog, The Evangelical Calvinist. Feel free to peruse the posts, and comment at your leisure. I look forward to the exchange we might have here, and hope you are provoked to love Jesus even more as a result. Pax Christi!

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A Little Thomas Torrance

“God loves you so utterly and completely that he has given himself for you in Jesus Christ his beloved Son, and has thereby pledged his very being as God for your salvation. In Jesus Christ God has actualised his unconditional love for you in your human nature in such a once for all way, that he cannot go back upon it without undoing the Incarnation and the Cross and thereby denying himself. Jesus Christ died for you precisely because you are sinful and utterly unworthy of him, and has thereby already made you his own before and apart from your ever believing in him. He has bound you to himself by his love in a way that he will never let you go, for even if you refuse him and damn yourself in hell his love will never cease. Therefore, repent and believe in Jesus Christ as your Lord and Saviour.” -T. F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ, 94.


“A deep brokenness requires a deeper theology.”

Philosophy of Blogging

“I count myself one of the number of those who write as they learn and learn as they write.” - St. Augustine cited by John Calvin

“We must always keep in mind that the reason the Son of God came down from the hidden throne of the eternal Father and revealed heavenly doctrine was not to furnish material for seminary debates, in which the display of ingenuity might be the game, but rather so that human beings should be instructed concerning true knowledge of God and of all those things which are necessary to the pursuit of eternal salvation.” Martin Chemnitz, Loci theol. ed., 1590, Hypomnemata 9 cited by Barth, CD I/1, 82.


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