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I just started reading the book (in my spare time 😉 ): Gospel Theology: Center Church, Part 1, by Timothy Keller of Redeemer Presbyterian Church in New York City. gospeltheologyMuch of what he writes sounds quite wonderful and orthodox (indeed it is: post-Reformed orthodox), and is edifying stuff. But there is something fundamentally awry in his thinking—at least in comparison with our Evangelical Calvinist approach, and unilateral understanding of Covenant Theology V. the bilateral understanding that funds Keller’s thinking). Keller writes:

So, in response to the great question “Are the covenant blessings of God conditional or unconditional?” — the answer is yes. Jesus, as the obedient and faithful  covenant servant, absolutely fulfilled the conditions of the covenant through his life and his suffering in our place, making it possible for him, as our faithful covenant Lord, to love us unconditionally. At the cross, both the law of God and the love of God were fulfilled and satisfied. In the city of God, there is no more curse (Rev 22:3) because the Passover Lamb of God bore the sins of his people. We will be his people — his bride —and he will be our God (Rev 21:2-3). History is consummated in the marriage supper of the Lamb (Rev 19:6-9). The ultimate love relationship we were built for will be fulfilled. [Keller, 30-1. Nook edition]

I have emboldened the most troubling and revealing aspect of what is informing Keller’s thinking; the idea being that the Law and consequences of the Law-breaking had to be met by Jesus as the organ of salvation so that God, a holy and just God could THEN and only then, love his ‘elect’ covenant people.

soulUnfortunately, this is directly at odds with an Evangelical Calvinist conception of Covenant theology. I say unfortunately, because Tim Keller is certainly, by predisposition and communication, a warm hearted brother, who genuinely loves God, and loves God’s people. What is unfortunate, to me, about Keller’s espousal of his underlying theology, is that it does not start with God as Triune love, in method (even if his piety asserts such, and it does!). What Keller is communicating is nothing more than classic Federal or Covenant theology communicated in such a way that it sounds warm and loving. But upon further examination what is going on is that God, because he is holy and just, cannot love an unholy and unjust people, until the penalty of their law-breaking, or sins, has been paid for (which the emboldening in the quote substantiates). For Keller’s theology, Jesus becomes the instrument for meeting these law-conditions (making Jesus unnecessary to God’s life, other than being the one who intended to meet these conditions—which subordinates Jesus to the Father, and places a rupture between the Father’s and the Son’s consubstantial life of love).

Evangelical Calvinism offers a different way in contrast to Keller’s taxonomy of things—”… creation, fall, promise and prefigurement, Israel, Christ’s redemption, and restoration” (p. 27-8″—along with Barth, Torrance, Ray Anderson, et. al., we see an inversion of this order, primarily relative to Keller’s order, we would order it this way: “covenant (his promise and prefigurement), creation, fall, Israel, redemption, restoration.” The ‘EC’ order shifts (if you didn’t notice we shift covenant/promise and creation; we place covenant or God’s life before creation, Keller’s approach places God’s life in redemption after creation and after the fall and after Israel) things quite drastically. Now when God comes in Christ, he initially comes for the same reason He initially created, that is because He is love, and he loves each and every person from the get go because of who He is, and who He has chosen to be for us in Christ. The cross, then becomes a demonstration of his love, and not the source by which he is able to love the elect. There is no condition that God has to meet before he can love humanity, because he has already chosen to be humanity for us in Christ (whose image we have been created and recreated in).

I would love to see Tim Keller abandon the Westminster Covenant theology that funds his pastoral theology, and instead embrace a view (like EC offers) that actually does on the ground what he desires. That is articulates a pastoral theology that is truly Christ conditioned and grounded from God’s Triune life of love and gracious action.

An alternative read that fits with the heart of Keller’s vision, but from an Evangelical Calvinist orientation is offered by Ray S. Anderson in his book: The Soul of Ministry: Forming Leaders For God’s People. I would highly recommend this work as an alternative resource to Keller’s offering in his book that I have been highlighting here.



Hello my name is Bobby Grow, and I author this blog, The Evangelical Calvinist. Feel free to peruse the posts, and comment at your leisure. I look forward to the exchange we might have here, and hope you are provoked to love Jesus even more as a result. Pax Christi!

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A Little Thomas Torrance

“God loves you so utterly and completely that he has given himself for you in Jesus Christ his beloved Son, and has thereby pledged his very being as God for your salvation. In Jesus Christ God has actualised his unconditional love for you in your human nature in such a once for all way, that he cannot go back upon it without undoing the Incarnation and the Cross and thereby denying himself. Jesus Christ died for you precisely because you are sinful and utterly unworthy of him, and has thereby already made you his own before and apart from your ever believing in him. He has bound you to himself by his love in a way that he will never let you go, for even if you refuse him and damn yourself in hell his love will never cease. Therefore, repent and believe in Jesus Christ as your Lord and Saviour.” -T. F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ, 94.


“A deep brokenness requires a deeper theology.”

Philosophy of Blogging

“I count myself one of the number of those who write as they learn and learn as they write.” - St. Augustine cited by John Calvin

“We must always keep in mind that the reason the Son of God came down from the hidden throne of the eternal Father and revealed heavenly doctrine was not to furnish material for seminary debates, in which the display of ingenuity might be the game, but rather so that human beings should be instructed concerning true knowledge of God and of all those things which are necessary to the pursuit of eternal salvation.” Martin Chemnitz, Loci theol. ed., 1590, Hypomnemata 9 cited by Barth, CD I/1, 82.


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